__Ancient Olympics__
The long jump was
not practiced as a separate event, but was part of the penathlon. The jumper
landed, just as today, in a sandpit. It was created by hacking the hard sand of
the stadium over a length of a bit more than fifteen meters.

A major difference with the
long jump today is that the Greeks held jumping weights or 'halters' of 1,5 to
2 kg in each hand. Thanks to these halters the athletes jumped further and
landed more steadily. Experiments have shown that, with the modern jumping
technique, the weights reduce the length of the jump and hinder the run-up.
Clearly the Greeks practiced a standing long jump, with their two feet
together, in which case the halters do offer an advantage. The take-off is made
more powerful by swinging the halters forwards. Swinging the weights backwards
produces a counterweight while landing, so one does not fall forwards.

Willy Clarysse. (2013 August 8). Ancient Olympics - Long Jump. Retrieved from http://www.history.pku.edu.cn/olympics/eng/TC003EN.html

__Standing long jump__
A standing long
jump is often used as a functional test to assess leg power, but the test may
underestimate the athlete’s true potential if the athlete does not use the best
possible technique. The selection of takeoff angle is one of the most important
technique variables. Masaki Wakai studied the effects of changes in takeoff
angle on performance in the standing long jump. The aim was to identify the
optimum takeoff angle and to explain the underlying biomechanics of the
standing long jump.

Performance in the standing
long jump is evaluated by the total jump distance, which is the horizontal
distance from takeoff line to the mark made by the heels at landing. The total
jump distance is the sum of three component distances; takeoff distance, flight
distance, and landing distance

Wakai, M. and
Linthorne, N.P. (2013 August 8). Optimal take-off angle in Standing Long Jump.
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